|Alternate Name:||Popeye-1 Have Nap|
|Launch Weight:||1360.00 kg|
|Payload:||350 kg HE, fragmentation|
|Associated Country:||United States|
|Exported:||Australia, Turkey, South Korea, Greece|
The AGM-142 Popeye-1 is a short-range, television or imaging infrared-guided, air-to-surface cruise missile developed and manufactured by Israel.
Rafael Armament Development Authority began the development of the AGM-142 Popeye-1 in the early 1980s with the intention of providing the Israeli armed forces with a television-guided weapon for use against high-value ground targets such as airfields, bridges, and bunkers. Television imaging, otherwise known as electro-optical imaging, is a navigation system in which an electro-optical seeker scans a designated area. Once a target is acquired, the missile will lock on to it for the kill. TV imaging does not depend on a target’s heat signature, and thus can be used against low-heat targets.
Development of the of the AGM-142 Popeye-1 was based on the earlier Pyramid TV-guided bomb, as well as Israeli experience gained from operating AGM-65A Maverick air-to-surface missiles bought from the U.S. Production started in 1989, and the AGM-142 entered service with the Israeli Air Force shortly thereafter.
In the late 1980s, the U.S. Air Force awarded a test and evaluation contract to prove the AGM-142 on the B-52 bomber. The missile completed its evaluation in 1990, and entered service with the USAF in 1990 under the U.S. designation AGM-142A “Have Nap.” During the 1990s, the U.S. carried out trials with AGM-142 missiles fitted with an imaging infra-red (IIR) seeker capable of recognizing the heat-based image of its target, instead of the original TV system. The IIR version was known as the AGM-142B.
The air-launched AGM-142 is cylindrical in shape with a domed nose-section, two small canard stabilizers (a horizontal airfoil that reduces the lift-induced drag of the wing, and lowers the overall drag of the missile), four clipped delta wings (triangle shaped) just aft of mid-body, and four small clipped-tip triangular moving control fins at the rear. The missile is 4.82 m in length, has a 0.53 m body diameter, and has a launch weight of 1,360 kg. It is powered by a solid propellant motor, and communicates with its launch aircraft by a digital datalink, which allows the operator to set the target marker on his display screen over the selected target.
The AGM-142A/B versions are armed with a standard 350 kg high explosive fragmentation warhead, which is designed to expel a large amount of shrapnel upon explosion. In the 1990s, development took place on a new warhead known as the I-800, which was developed as an alternative to the original high explosive fragmentation warhead. The new 352 kg high explosive penetration warhead provides an improved capability against hardened targets. Those missiles carrying the new warhead are designated AFM-142C for the TV-guided version, and AGM-142D for the IIR guided version.
The AGM-142A/B/C/D versions have a maximum range of 80 km and an accuracy of 3 m circular error probability (CEP). From 1990 to 1996, two product improvement programs were conducted, and they incorporated improved software and electronic components. The improved versions are known as the AGM-142E and the AGM-142F. They feature a longer range of 90 km, an improved accuracy of 1 m CEP, and have the option of fitting a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver to augment the midcourse guidance.
The AGM-142 Popeye-1 is deployed on Kfir and F-4 Phantom aircraft, as well as the B-52H bomber, the F-15 Eagle, and the F-111. It has been exported to Australia, Turkey, South Korea, Greece, and India, and is produced under license in the U.S. by a joint venture company known as Precision Guided Systems United States (PGSUS). Some AGM-142 missiles may have been launched by the USAF during the 1991 Gulf War, and two are believed to have been launched in May 1999 against targets in Serbia. The AGM-142 missiles were withdrawn from active service by the USAF in 2003.
In 2000, Rafael Armament Development Authority released details of a Smart Precise Impact Cost Effective (SPICE) add-on guidance kit for Mk 84 bombs, based on the Popeye seekers. In 2004, a report indicated that a new anti-ship version was being developed, known as the “Have Rain.” The new missile is believed to have a launch weight of 900 kg, and will be deployed aboard P-3 Orion aircraft.(1)
- Jane’s Strategic Weapons Systems, Issue 50, ed. Duncan Lennox, (Surrey: Jane’s Information Group, January 2009), 80-82; GlobalSecurity.org, “AGM-142 Raptor / Popeye I Have Nap / Popeye II Have Lite,” available at http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/systems/munitions/agm-142.htm, accessed on January 11, 2011.