Wartime Modifications

American submarines underwent a number of modifications during the Second World War. These included changes to the gun armament, detection gear, electronics suites, and even the exterior appearance of the boats themselves. Pre-war Gatos and other classes, like the U.S.S. Salmon (pictured), started out with large, well-sheltered (for a submarine) conning tower fairwaters, with an … Read more

Underwater Submarine Control Dynamics | How do Submarines Work?

A surface vessel, including a surfaced submarine, moves from point to point in two dimensions. It can travel forward or backward, or move laterally, but it must always remain on the single plane of the ocean’s surface. A submerged submarine, however, like an airplane, travels in three dimensions. In addition to the forward/reverse/lateral movement of … Read more

Torpedo Data Computer

In an ideal situation, a submarine’s captain could position his unmoving boat with its bow pointed directly at the side of an unmoving target and fire his torpedoes straight ahead, where they would inevitably hit the target. In real life, both the submarine and the target are normally moving in different directions, and the captain … Read more